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package Torello.HTML;

import java.util.*;
import java.util.regex.*;
import java.util.stream.*;

import java.util.function.Predicate;

import Torello.HTML.NodeSearch.*;
import Torello.Java.*;

import Torello.Java.Shell.C;

/**
 * <CODE>Util - Documentation.</CODE><BR /><BR />
 * <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTIL">
 */
@Torello.HTML.Tools.JavaDoc.StaticFunctional
public class Util
{
    private Util() { }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Trim TextNode Strings
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #trimTextNodes(Vector, int, int, boolean)} */
    public static int trimTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, boolean deleteZeroLengthStrings)
    { return trimTextNodes(page, 0, -1, deleteZeroLengthStrings); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #trimTextNodes(Vector, int, int, boolean)} */
    public static int trimTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair dp, boolean deleteZeroLengthStrings)
    { return trimTextNodes(page, dp.start, dp.end + 1, deleteZeroLengthStrings); }

    /**
     * This will iterate through the entire {@code Vector<HTMLNode>}, and invoke
     * {@code java.lang.String.trim()} on each {@code TextNode} on the page.  If this invocation
     * results in a reduction of {@code String.length()}, then a new {@code TextNode} will be
     * instantiated whose {@code TextNode.str} field is set to the result of the
     * {@code String.trim(old_node.str)} operation.
     * 
     * @param deleteZeroLengthStrings If a {@code TextNode's} length is zero (before or after
     * {@code trim()} is called) and when this parameter is <B>TRUE</B>, that {@code TextNode} must
     * be removed from the {@code Vector}.
     * 
     * @return Any node that is trimmed or deleted will increment the counter.  This counter
     * final-value is returned
     */
    public static int trimTextNodes
        (Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos, boolean deleteZeroLengthStrings)
    {
        int                 counter = 0;
        IntStream.Builder   b       = deleteZeroLengthStrings ? IntStream.builder() : null;
        HTMLNode            n       = null;
        LV                  l       = new LV(page, sPos, ePos);

        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++)
            if ((n = page.elementAt(i)).isTextNode())
            {
                String  trimmed         = n.str.trim();
                int     trimmedLength   = trimmed.length();

                if ((trimmedLength == 0) && deleteZeroLengthStrings)
                    { b.add(i); counter++; }
                else if (trimmedLength < n.str.length())
                    { page.setElementAt(new TextNode(trimmed), i); counter++; }
            }

        if (deleteZeroLengthStrings) removeNodesOPT(page, b.build().toArray());

        return counter;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Inclusive-Empty Removal Operations
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #removeInclusiveEmpty(Vector, int, int, String[])} */
    public static int removeInclusiveEmpty(Vector<HTMLNode> page, String... htmlTags)
    { return removeInclusiveEmpty(page, 0, -1, htmlTags); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #removeInclusiveEmpty(Vector, int, int, String[])} */
    public static int removeInclusiveEmpty(Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair dp, String... htmlTags)
    { return removeInclusiveEmpty(page, dp.start, dp.end + 1, htmlTags); }

    /**
     * This will do an "Inclusive Search" using the standard {@code class TagNodeInclusiveIterator}
     * in the {@code package NodeSearch}.  Then it will inspect the contents of the subsections.
     * Any subsections that do not contain any instances of {@code HTMLNode} in between them, or
     * any subsections that only contain "blank-text" (white-space) between them shall be removed.
     * 
     * <BR /><BR /><B><SPAN STYLE="color: red;">IMPORTANT:</B></SPAN> The search logic shall
     * perform multiple <I><B>recursive iterations</B></I> of itself, such that if, for instance,
     * the user requested that all empty HTML divider ({@code <DIV>}) elements be removed, if after
     * removing a set a dividers resulted in more empty ones (nested {@code <DIV>} elements), then
     * an additional removal shall be called.  <I>This recursion shall continue until there are no
     * empty HTML elements of the types listed by</I> {@code 'htmlTags'}
     *
     * @param page Any vectorized-html page or sub-page.
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @param htmlTags The list of <I>inclusive</I> (non-singleton) html elements to search for
     * possibly being empty container tags.
     * 
     * @return The number of {@code HTMLNode's} that were removed.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     */
    public static int removeInclusiveEmpty
        (Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos, String... htmlTags)
    {
        DotPair         subList;
        int             removed = 0;
        HNLIInclusive   iter    = TagNodeInclusiveIterator.iter(page, htmlTags);
        LV              l       = new LV(page, sPos, ePos);

        iter.restrictCursor(l);

        TOP:
        while (iter.hasNext())

            // If there is only the opening & closing pair, with nothing in between,
            // then the pair must be removed because it is "Empty" (Inclusive Empty)
            if ((subList = iter.nextDotPair()).size() == 2)
            { iter.remove();    ePos -= subList.size();     removed += subList.size(); }

            else
            {
                // If there is any TagNode in between the start-end pair, then this is NOT EMPTY
                // In this case, skip to the next start-end opening-closing pair.
                for (int i=(subList.start + 1); i < subList.end; i++)
                    if (! page.elementAt(i).isTextNode())
                        continue TOP;

                // If there were only TextNode's between an opening-closing TagNode Pair....
                // **AND** those TextNode's are only white-space, then this also considered
                // Inclusively Empty.  (Get all TextNode's, and if .trim() reduces the length()
                // to zero, then it was only white-space.
                if (Util.textNodesString(page, subList).trim().length() == 0)
                { iter.remove();    ePos -= subList.size();     removed += subList.size(); }
            }

        // This process must be continued recursively, because if any inner, for instance,
        // <DIV> ... </DIV> was removed, then the outer list must be re-checked...
        if (removed > 0)
            return removed + removeInclusiveEmpty(page, sPos, ePos, htmlTags);
        else
            return 0;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Vectorized-HTML To-String Methods
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link rangeToString(Vector, int, int)}. */
    public static String pageToString(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    { return rangeToString(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link rangeToString(Vector, int, int)}. */
    public static String rangeToString(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return rangeToString(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * The purpose of this method/function is to convert a portion of the contents of an HTML-Page,
     * currently being represented as a {@code Vector} of {@code HTMLNode's} into a {@code String.}
     * Two {@code 'int'} parameters are provided in this method's signature to define a sub-list
     * of a page to be converted to a {@code java.lang.String}
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The {@code Vector} converted into a {@code String}.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see #pageToString(Vector)
     * @see #rangeToString(Vector, DotPair)
     */
    public static String rangeToString(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        StringBuilder   ret = new StringBuilder();
        LV              l   = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);

        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++) ret.append(html.elementAt(i).str);

        return ret.toString();
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Vectorized-HTML TextNode To-String Methods
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #textNodesString(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static String textNodesString(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    { return textNodesString(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #textNodesString(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static String textNodesString(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return textNodesString(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * This will return a {@code String} that is comprised of ONLY the {@code TextNode's} contained
     * within the input {@code Vector} - <I>and furthermore, only nodes that are situated between
     * index {@code int 'sPos'} and index {@code int 'ePos'} in that {@code Vector.}</I>
     * 
     * <BR /><BR />The {@code for-loop} that iterates the input-{@Vector} parameter will
     * simply skip an instance of {@code 'TagNode'} and {@code 'CommentNode'} when building the
     * output return {@code String.}.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return This will return a {@code String} that is comprised of the text-only elements in the
     * web-page or sub-page.  Only text between the requested {@code Vector}-indices is included.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see #textNodesString(Vector, DotPair)
     * @see #textNodesString(Vector)
     */
    public static String textNodesString(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        StringBuilder   sb  = new StringBuilder();
        LV              l   = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);
        HTMLNode        n;

        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++)
            if ((n = html.elementAt(i)).isTextNode())
                sb.append(n.str);

        return sb.toString();
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // TextNode Removal Operations
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #removeAllTextNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeAllTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page)
    { return removeAllTextNodes(page, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and invokes {@link #removeAllTextNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeAllTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair dp)
    { return removeAllTextNodes(page, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Takes a sub-section of an HTML {@code Vector} and removes all {@code TextNode} present
     * 
     * @param page Any HTML page
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of HTML {@code TextNode's} that were removed
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see TextNode
     * @see #removeNodesOPT(Vector, int[])
     */
    public static int removeAllTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        IntStream.Builder   b       = IntStream.builder();
        LV                  l       = new LV(page, sPos, ePos);

        // Use Java-Streams to build the list of nodes that are valid text-nodes.
        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++) if (page.elementAt(i).isTextNode()) b.add(i);

        // Build the stream and convert it to an int[] (integer-array)
        int[]               posArr  = b.build().toArray();

        // The integer array is guaranteed to be sorted, and contain valid vector-indices.
        removeNodesOPT(page, posArr);

        return posArr.length;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // TagNode Removal Operations
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #removeAllTagNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeAllTagNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page) 
    { return removeAllTagNodes(page, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #removeAllTagNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeAllTagNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair dp)
    { return removeAllTagNodes(page, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Takes a sub-section of an HTML {@code Vector} and removes all {@code TagNode} present
     * 
     * @param page Any HTML page
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of HTML {@code TagNode's} that were removed
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see TagNode
     * @see #removeNodesOPT(Vector, int[])
     */
    public static int removeAllTagNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        IntStream.Builder   b       = IntStream.builder();
        LV                  l       = new LV(page, sPos, ePos);

        // Use Java-Streams to build the list of nodes that are valid tag-nodes.
        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++) if (page.elementAt(i).isTagNode()) b.add(i);

        // Build the stream and convert it to an int[] (integer-array)
        int[]               posArr  = b.build().toArray();

        // The integer array is guaranteed to be sorted, and contain valid vector-indices.
        removeNodesOPT(page, posArr);

        return posArr.length;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // CommentNode Removal Operations
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #removeAllCommentNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeAllCommentNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page)
    { return removeAllCommentNodes(page, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method. Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #removeAllCommentNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeAllCommentNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair dp)
    { return removeAllCommentNodes(page, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Takes a sub-section of an HTML {@code Vector} and removes all {@code CommentNode} present
     * 
     * @param page Any HTML page
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of HTML {@code CommentNode's} that were removed
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see CommentNode
     * @see #removeNodesOPT(Vector, int[])
     */
    public static int removeAllCommentNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        IntStream.Builder   b       = IntStream.builder();
        LV                  l       = new LV(page, sPos, ePos);

        // Use Java-Streams to build the list of nodes that are valid comment-nodes.
        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++)
            if (page.elementAt(i).isCommentNode())
                b.add(i);

        // Build the stream and convert it to an int[] (integer-array)
        int[]               posArr  = b.build().toArray();

        // The integer array is guaranteed to be sorted, and contain valid vector-indices.
        removeNodesOPT(page, posArr);

        return posArr.length; 
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // TextNode Modification Operations - "Escape Text Nodes"
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link escapeTextNodes(Vector, int, int)}. */
    public static int escapeTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> html)
    { return escapeTextNodes(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link escapeTextNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int escapeTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return escapeTextNodes(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Will call {@code HTML.Escape.replaceAll} on each {@code TextNode} in the range of
     * {@code sPos ... ePos}
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of {@code TextNode's} that changed as a result of the
     * {@code Escape.replaceAll(n.str)} loop.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see Escape#replaceAll(String)
     */
    public static int escapeTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        LV          l       = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);
        HTMLNode    n       = null;
        String      s       = null;
        int	        counter = 0;

        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++)
            if ((n = html.elementAt(i)).isTextNode())
                if (! (s = Escape.replace(n.str)).equals(n.str))
                {
                    html.setElementAt(new TextNode(s), i);
                    counter++;
                }
        return counter;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Clone HTML Vectors
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link cloneRange(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static Vector<HTMLNode> clone(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    { return cloneRange(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link cloneRange(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static Vector<HTMLNode> cloneRange(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return cloneRange(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Copies (clones!) a sub-range of the HTML page, stores the results in a {@code Vector}, and
     * returns it.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The "cloned" (copied) sub-range specified by {@code 'sPos'} and {@code 'ePos'.}
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see #cloneRange(Vector, DotPair)
     */
    public static Vector<HTMLNode> cloneRange(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        LV                  l   = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);
        Vector<HTMLNode>    ret = new Vector<>(l.end - l.start);

        // Copy the range specified into the return vector
        for (int i = l.start; i < l.end; i++) ret.addElement(html.elementAt(i));

        return ret;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Remove All Inner Tags
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #removeAllInnerTags(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeAllInnerTags(Vector<HTMLNode> html)
    { return removeAllInnerTags(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #removeAllInnerTags(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeAllInnerTags(Vector<? super TagNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return removeAllInnerTags(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * This method removes all inner-tags (all attributes) from every {@code TagNode} inside of an
     * HTML page.  It does this by replacing every {@code TagNode} in the {@code Vector} with the
     * pre-instantiated, publicly-available {@code TagNode} which can be obtained by a call to the
     * class {@code HTMLTags.hasTag(token, TC)}.
     * 
     * <BR /><BR /><B>NOTE:</B> This method determines whether a fresh {@code TagNode} is to be
     * inserted by measuring the length of the internal {@code TagNode.str} (a {@code String})
     * field. If {@code TagNode.str.length()} is not equal to the HTML token {@code TagNode.tok}
     * length <B>plus 2</B>, then a fresh, pre-instantiated, node is replaced.  The {@code '+2'}
     * figure comes from the additional characters {@code '<'} and {@code '>'} that start and end
     * every HTML {@code TagNode}
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of {@code TagNode} elements that have were replaced with zero-attribute
     * HTML Element Tags.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     */
    public static int removeAllInnerTags(Vector<? super TagNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        Object o;   TagNode tn;

        int ret = 0;
        LV  l   = new LV(sPos, ePos, html);

        for (int i = (l.end-1); i >= l.start; i--)                  // Iterate the Loop-Variable
            if ((o = html.elementAt(i)) instanceof TagNode)         // Only TagNode's have Inner-Tags
                if (! (tn = (TagNode) o).isClosing)                 // Only "Opening TagNodes" have attributes
                    if (tn.str.length() > (tn.tok.length() + 2))    // <TOK> *CANNOT* have Inner-Tags...
                    {
                        ret++;
                        html.setElementAt(HTMLTags.hasTag(tn.tok, TC.OpeningTags), i);
                        // HTMLTags.hasTag(tok, TC) gets an empty and pre-instantiated TagNode,
                        // where TagNode.tok == 'tn.tok' and TagNode.isClosing = false
                    }

        return ret;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // String Length of the TextNode's
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #textStrLength(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int textStrLength(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return textStrLength(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #textStrLength(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int textStrLength(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    { return textStrLength(html, 0, -1); }

    /**
     * This method will return the length of the strings <I><B>contained by all/only instances of
     * {@code 'TextNode'}</B></I> among the nodes of the input HTML-{@code Vector}.   This is
     * identical to the behavior of the method with the same name, but includes starting and ending
     * bounds on the html {@code Vector}: {@code 'sPos'} &amp; {@code 'ePos'}.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The sum of the lengths of the text contained by text-nodes in the {@code Vector} 
     * between {@code 'sPos'} and {@code 'ePos'}.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     */
    public static int textStrLength(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        HTMLNode    n;
        int         sum = 0;
        LV          l   = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);

        // Counts the length of each "String" in a "TextNode" between sPos and ePos
        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++)
            if ((n = html.elementAt(i)).isTextNode())
                sum += n.str.length();

        return sum;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Compact Adjacent / Adjoining TextNode's
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #compactTextNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int compactTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> html)
    { return compactTextNodes(html, 0, html.size()); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #compactTextNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int compactTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return compactTextNodes(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }     

    /**
     * Occasionally, when removing instances of {@code TagNode} from a vectorized-html 
     * page, certain instances of {@code TextNode} which were not adjacent / neighbours in
     * the {@code Vector}, all of a sudden become adjacent.  Although there are no major problems
     * with contiguous instances of {@code TextNode} from the Search Algorithm's perspective,
     * for programmer's, it can sometimes be befuddling to realize that the output text that
     * is returned from a call to {@code Util.pageToString(html)} is not being found because
     * the text that is left is broken amongst multiple instances of adjacent TextNodes.
     *
     * <BR /><BR />This method merely combines "Adjacent" instances of {@code class TextNode}
     * in the {@code Vector} into single instances of {@code class TextNode}
     *
     * @param html Any vectorized-html web-page.  If this page contain any contiguously placed
     * {@code TextNode's}, the extra's will be eliminated, and the internal-string's inside the
     * node's ({@code TextNode.str}) will be combined.  This action will reduce the size of the
     * actual html-{@code Vector}.
     * 
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of nodes that were eliminated after being combined, or 0 if there
     * were no text-nodes that were removed.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see HTMLNode#str
     * @see TextNode
     */
    public static int compactTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        LV      l           = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);
        boolean compacting  = false;
        int     firstPos    = -1;
        int     delta       = 0;

        for (int i=l.start; i < (l.end - delta); i++)
            if (html.elementAt(i).isTextNode())         // Is a TextNode
            {
                if (compacting) continue;               // Not in "Compacting Mode"
                compacting = true;  firstPos = i;       // Start "Compacting Mode" - this is a TextNode
            }
            else if (compacting && (firstPos < (i-1)))  // Else - Must be a TagNode or CommentNode
            {
                // Save compacted TextNode String's into this StringBuilder
                StringBuilder compacted = new StringBuilder();

                // Iterate all TextNodes that were adjacent, put them together into StringBuilder
                for (int j=firstPos; j < i; j++) compacted.append(html.elementAt(j).str);

                // Place this new "aggregate TextNode" at location of the first TextNode that
                // was compacted into this StringBuilder
                html.setElementAt(new TextNode(compacted.toString()), firstPos);

                // Remove the rest of the positions in the Vector that had TextNode's.  These have
                // all been put together into the "Aggregate TextNode" at position "firstPos"
                Util.removeRange(html, firstPos + 1, i);

                // The change in the size of the Vector needs to be accounted for.
                delta += (i - firstPos - 1);

                // Change the loop-counter variable, too, since the size of the Vector has changed.
                i = firstPos + 1;

                // Since we just hit a CommentNode, or TagNode, exit "Compacting Mode."
                compacting = false;

            } else compacting = false;
                // NOTE: This, ALSO, MUST BE a TagNode or CommentNode (just like the previous
                //       if-else branch !)
                // TRICKY: Don't forget this 'else' !

        // Added - Don't forget the case where the Vector ends with a series of TextNodes
        // TRICKY TOO! (Same as the HTML Parser... The ending or 'trailing' nodes must be parsed
        int lastNodePos = html.size() - 1;
        if (html.elementAt(lastNodePos).isTextNode()) if (compacting && (firstPos < lastNodePos))
        {
            StringBuilder compacted = new StringBuilder();

            // Compact the TextNodes that were identified at the end of the Vector range.
            for (int j=firstPos; j <= lastNodePos; j++) compacted.append(html.elementAt(j).str);

            // Replace the group of TextNode's at the end of the Vector, with the single, aggregate
            html.setElementAt(new TextNode(compacted.toString()), firstPos);
            Util.removeRange(html, firstPos + 1, lastNodePos + 1);
        }

        return delta;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Count New Lines
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #countNewLines(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int countNewLines(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    { return countNewLines(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #countNewLines(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int countNewLines(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return countNewLines(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }


    /**
     * This will count the number of new-line symbols present <B><I>- on the partial HTML
     * page</I></B>. The count will include a sum of every {@code HTMLNode.str} that
     * contains the standard new-line symbols: {@code \r\n, \r, \n}, meaning that UNIX, MSFT,
     * Apple, etc. forms of text-line rendering should all be treated equally.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of new-line characters in all of the {@code HTMLNode's} that occur
     * between vectorized-page positions {@code 'sPos'} and {@code 'ePos.'}
     * 
     * <BR /><BR /><B>NOTE:</B> The regular-expression used here 'NEWLINEP' is as follows:
     * 
     * <DIV CLASS="SNIP">{@code
     * private static final Pattern NEWLINEP = Pattern.compile("\\r\\n|\\r|\\n");
     * }</DIV>
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see StringParse#NEWLINEP
     */
    public static int countNewLines(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        int newLineCount    = 0;
        LV  l               = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);

        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++)

                // Uses the Torello.Java.StringParse "New Line RegEx"
                for (   Matcher m = StringParse.NEWLINEP.matcher(html.elementAt(i).str);
                        m.find();
                        newLineCount++);

        return newLineCount;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Count TextNode's
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #countTextNodes(Vector, int, int) */
    public static int countTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page)
    { return countTextNodes(page, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #countTextNodes(Vector, int, int) */
    public static int countTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair dp)
    { return countTextNodes(page, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Counts the number of {@code TextNode's} in a {@code Vector<HTMLNode>} between the demarcated
     * array / {@code Vector} positions, {@code 'sPos'} and {@code 'ePos'}
     * 
     * @param page Any HTML page.
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of {@code TextNode's} in the {@code Vector} between the demarcated
     * indices.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     */
    public static int countTextNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        int counter = 0;
        LV  l       = new LV(page, sPos, ePos);

        // Iterates the entire page between sPos and ePos, incrementing the count for every
        // instance of text-node.
        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++) if (page.elementAt(i).isTextNode()) counter++;

        return counter;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Count CommentNode's
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #countCommentNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int countCommentNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page)
    { return countCommentNodes(page, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #countCommentNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int countCommentNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair dp)
    { return countCommentNodes(page, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Counts the number of {@code CommentNode's} in an {@code Vector<HTMLNode>} between the
     * demarcated array / {@code Vector} positions.
     * 
     * @param page Any HTML page.
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of {@code CommentNode's} in the {@code Vector} between the demarcated
     * indices.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     */
    public static int countCommentNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        int counter = 0;
        LV  l       = new LV(page, sPos, ePos);

        // Iterates the entire page between sPos and ePos, incrementing the count for every
        // instance of comment-node.
        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++)
             if (page.elementAt(i).isCommentNode())
                counter++;

        return counter;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Count TagNode's
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #countTagNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int countTagNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page)
    { return countTagNodes(page, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #countTagNodes(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int countTagNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair dp)
    { return countTagNodes(page, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Counts the number of {@code TagNode's} in a {@code Vector<HTMLNode>} between the demarcated 
     * array / {@code Vector} positions.
     * 
     * @param page Any HTML page.
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of {@code TagNode's} in the {@code Vector}.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     */
    public static int countTagNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        int counter = 0;
        LV  l       = new LV(page, sPos, ePos);

        // Iterates the entire page between sPos and ePos, incrementing the count for every
        // instance of TagNode.
        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++) if (page.elementAt(i).isTagNode()) counter++;

        return counter;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // String-Length Operations
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #strLength(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int strLength(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    { return strLength(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #strLength(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int strLength(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return strLength(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * This method simply adds / sums the {@code String}-length of every {@code HTMLNode.str }
     * field in the passed page-{@code Vector}.  It only counts nodes between parameters
     * {@code sPos} (inclusive) and {@code ePos} (exclusive).
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return The total length <B><I>- in characters -</I></B> of the sub-page of HTML between
     * {@code 'sPos'} and {@code 'ePos'}
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see #strLength(Vector)
     */
    public static int strLength(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        int ret = 0;
        LV  l   = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);

        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++) ret += html.elementAt(i).str.length();

        return ret;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Hash-Code Operations
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #hashCode(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int hashCode(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    { return hashCode(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #hashCode(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int hashCode(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return hashCode(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Generates a hash-code for a vectorized html page-{@code Vector}.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return Returns the {@code String.hashCode()} of the <I><B>partial HTML-page</B></i> as if
     * it were not being stored as a {@code Vector}, but rather as HTML inside of a
     * Java-{@code String}.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see #hashCode(Vector)
     */
    public static int hashCode(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        int h   = 0;
        LV  lv  = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);

        for (int j=lv.start; j < lv.end; j++)
        {
            String  s = html.elementAt(j).str;
            int     l = s.length();

            // This line has been copied from the jdk8/jdk8 "String.hashCode()" method.
            // The difference is that it iterates over the entire vector
            for (int i=0; i < l; i++) h = 31 * h + s.charAt(i);
        }

        return h;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Style-Node & Script-Node Block Removal Operations
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /**
     * Removes all HTML {@code 'style'} Node blocks.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of {@code <STYLE>}-Node Blocks that were removed
     * 
     * @see TagNodeRemoveInclusive#first(Vector, String[])
     */
    public static int removeStyleNodeBlocks(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    {
        int removeCount = 0;
        while (TagNodeRemoveInclusive.first(html, "style") > 0) removeCount++;
        return removeCount;
    }

    /**
     * Removes all {@code 'script'} Node blocks.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * 
     * @return The number of {@code SCRIPT}-Node Blocks that were removed
     * 
     * @see TagNodeRemoveInclusive#first(Vector, String[])
     */
    public static int removeScriptNodeBlocks(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    {
        int removeCount = 0;
        while (TagNodeRemoveInclusive.first(html, "script") > 0) removeCount++;
        return removeCount;
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // JSON Script Nodes
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************

    /** Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #getJSONScriptBlocks(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static Stream<String> getJSONScriptBlocks(Vector<HTMLNode> html)
    { return getJSONScriptBlocks(html, 0, -1); }

    /** Convenience Method.  Accepts {@code DotPair}.  Invokes {@link #getJSONScriptBlocks(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static Stream<String> getJSONScriptBlocks(Vector<HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return getJSONScriptBlocks(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * This method shall search for any and all {@code <SCRIPT TYPE="json">}
     * <I>JSON TEXT</I> {@code </SCRIPT>} block present in a range of Vectorized HTML.  The
     * search method shall simply look for the toke {@code "JSON"} in the {@code TYPE} attribute
     * of each and every {@code <SCRIPT> TagNode} that is found on the page.  The validity of the
     * {@code JSON} found within such blocks <I>is not checked for validity, nor is it even
     * guaranteed to be {@code JSON} data!</I>
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return This will return a {@code java.util.stream.Stream<String>} of each of the 
     * {@code JSON} elements present in the specified range of the Vectorized HTML passed to
     * parameter {@code 'html'}.
     * 
     * <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="STRMCNVT">
     * 
     * @see StrTokCmpr#containsIgnoreCase(String, Predicate, String)
     * @see Util#rangeToString(Vector, int, int)
     */
    public static Stream<String> getJSONScriptBlocks(Vector<HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        // Whenever building lists, it is usually easiest to use a Stream.Builder
        Stream.Builder<String> b = Stream.builder();

        // This Predicate simply tests that if the substring "json" (CASE INSENSITIVE) is found
        // in the TYPE attribute of a <SCRIPT TYPE=...> node, that the token-string is, indeed a
        // word - not a substring of some other word.  For instance: TYPE="json" would PASS, but
        // TYPE="rajsong" would FAIL - because the token string is not surrounded by white-space

        final Predicate<String> tester = (String s) ->
            StrTokCmpr.containsIgnoreCase(s, (Character c) -> ! Character.isLetterOrDigit(c), "json");

        // Find all <SCRIPT> node-blocks whose "TYPE" attribute abides by the tester String-predicate
        // named above.
        Vector<DotPair> jsonDPList = InnerTagFindInclusive.all
            (html, sPos, ePos, "script", "type", tester);

        // Convert each of these DotPair element into a java.lang.String
        // Add the String to the Stream.Builder<String>
        for (DotPair jsonDP : jsonDPList)
            if (jsonDP.size() > 2)
                b.accept(Util.rangeToString(html, jsonDP.start + 1, jsonDP.end));

        // Build the Stream, and return it.
        return b.build();
    }

    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // MISC
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /**
     * Inserts nodes, and allows a 'varargs' parameter.
     * 
     * @param html Any HTML Page
     * 
     * @param pos The position in the original {@code Vector} where the nodes shall be inserted.
     * 
     * @param nodes A list of nodes to insert.
     */
    public static void insertNodes(Vector<HTMLNode> html, int pos, HTMLNode... nodes)
    {
        Vector<HTMLNode> nodesVec = new Vector<>(nodes.length);
        for (HTMLNode node : nodes) nodesVec.addElement(node);
        html.addAll(pos, nodesVec);
    }

    /**
     * <SPAN STYLE="color: red;"><B>OPT: Optimized</B></SPAN>
     * 
     * <BR /><BR />This method does the same thing as {@link #removeNodes(boolean, Vector, int[])}
     * but all error checking is skipped, and the input integer array is presumed to have
     * been sorted. There are no guarantees about the behavior of this method if the input array
     * {@code 'posArr'} is not sorted, <I>least-to-greatest,</I> or if there are duplicate or
     * negative values in this array.
     * 
     * <BR /><BR /><B>NOTE:</B> If the var-args input integer-array parameter is empty, this method
     * shall exit gracefully, and immediately.
     * 
     * @param page Any HTML-Page, usually ones generated by {@code HTMLPage.getPageTokens(...)},
     * but these may be obtained or created in any fashion so necessary.
     * 
     * @param posArr An array of integers which list/identify the nodes in the page to be removed.
     * Because this implementation has been optimized, no error checking will be performed on this
     * input.  It is presumed to be sorted, least-to-greatest, and that all values in the array are
     * valid-indices into the vectorized-html parameter {@code 'page'}
     */
    public static <T extends HTMLNode> void removeNodesOPT(Vector<T> page, int... posArr)
    {
        if (posArr.length == 0) return;

        int endingInsertPos = page.size() - posArr.length;
        int posArrIndex     = 0;
        int insertPos       = posArr[0];
        int retrievePos     = posArr[0];

        // There is very little that can be documented about these two loops.  Took 3 hours
        // to figure out.  Read the variables names for "best documentation"

        while (insertPos < endingInsertPos)
        {
            // This inner-loop is necessary for when the posArr has consecutive-elements that
            // are *ALSO* consecutive-pointers.
            //
            // For instance, this invokation:
            // Util.removeNodes(page, 4, 5, 6); ...
            //      where 4, 5, and 6 are consecutive - the inner while-loop is required.
            //
            // For this invokation: 
            // Util.removeNodes(page, 2, 4, 6); 
            //      the inner-loop is not entered.

            while ((posArrIndex < posArr.length) && (retrievePos == posArr[posArrIndex]))
            { retrievePos++; posArrIndex++; }

            page.setElementAt(page.elementAt(retrievePos++), insertPos++);
        }

        // Remove all remaining elements in the tail of the array.
        page.setSize(page.size() - posArr.length);
    }


    /**
     * This method remove each HTMLNode from the passed-parameter {@code 'page'} listed/identified 
     * by the input array {@code 'nodeList'}.
     * 
     * <BR /><BR /><B>NOTE:</B> If the var-args input integer-array parameter is empty, this method
     * shall exit gracefully, and immediately.
     * 
     * @param preserveInputArray This is a convenience input parameter that allows a programmer to
     * "preserve" the original input-parameter integer-array that is passed to this method.  It
     * could be argued this parameter is "superfluous" - however, keep in mind that the passed
     * parameter {@code 'nodeList'} <B><I>must be sorted</I></B> before this method is able
     * function properly. There is a sort that's performed within the body of this method.  Just in
     * case that the original order of the integer-array input-parameter must be preserved, its
     * possible to request for the sort to operate on "a clone" of the input-parameter
     * integer-array, instead of the original integer-array {@code 'nodeList'} itself.
     * 
     * @param page Any HTML-Page, usually ones generated by {@code HTMLPage.getPageTokens(...)},
     * but these may be obtained or created in any fashion so necessary.
     * 
     * @param nodeList An array of integers which list/identify the nodes in the page to be
     * removed.
     * 
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException If the {@code 'nodeList'} contains duplicate entries.
     * Obviously, no {@code HTMLNode} may be removed from the {@code Vector<HTMLNode>} more than
     * once.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException If the nodeList contains index-pointers / items that are
     * not within the bounds of the passed HTML-Page {@code Vector}.
     */
    public static <T extends HTMLNode> void removeNodes
        (boolean preserveInputArray, Vector<T> page, int... nodeList)
    {
        if (nodeList.length == 0) return;

        // @Safe Var Args
        int[]   posArr  = preserveInputArray ? nodeList.clone() : nodeList;
        int     len     = posArr.length;

        Arrays.sort(posArr);

        // Check for duplicates in the nodeList, no HTMLNode may be removed twice!
        for (int i=0; i < (len - 1); i++)
            if (posArr[i] == posArr[i+1]) throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                "The input array contains duplicate items, this is not allowed.\n" +
                "This is since each array-entry is intended to be a pointer/index for items to " +
                "be removed.\nNo item can possibly be removed twice.!"
            );

        // Make sure all nodes are within the bounds of the original Vector.  (no negative indexes,
        // no indexes greater than the size of the Vector)
        if ((posArr[0] < 0) || (posArr[len - 1] >= page.size()))
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException (
                "The input array contains entries which are not within the bounds of the " +
                "original-passed Vector.\nHTMLPage Vector has: " + page.size() + " elements.\n" +
                "Maximum element in the nodeList is [" + posArr[len - 1] + "], and the minimum " +
                "element is: [" + posArr[0] + "]"
            );

        int endingInsertPos = page.size() - posArr.length;
        int posArrIndex     = 0;
        int insertPos       = posArr[0];
        int retrievePos     = posArr[0];

        // There is very little that can be documented about these two loops.  Took 3 hours
        // to figure out.  Read the variables names for "best documentation"

        while (insertPos < endingInsertPos)
        {
            // This inner-loop is necessary for when the posArr has consecutive-elements that
            // are *ALSO* consecutive-pointers.
            //
            // For instance, this invocation:
            // Util.removeNodes(page, 4, 5, 6);
            //      where 4, 5, and 6 are consecutive - the inner while-loop is required.
            //
            // For this invocation: 
            // Util.removeNodes(page, 2, 4, 6);
            //      the inner-loop is not entered.
            while ((posArrIndex < posArr.length) && (retrievePos == posArr[posArrIndex])) 
            { retrievePos++; posArrIndex++; }

            page.setElementAt(page.elementAt(retrievePos++), insertPos++);
        }

        // Remove all remaining elements in the tail of the array.
        page.setSize(page.size() - posArr.length);
    }

    /** ConvenienceMethod.  Invokes {@link #replaceRange(Vector, int, int, Vector)} */
    public static void replaceRange
        (Vector<HTMLNode> page, DotPair range, Vector<HTMLNode> newNodes)
    { replaceRange(page, range.start, range.end+1, newNodes); }

    /**
     * Replaces any all and all {@code HTMLNode's} located between the {@code Vector} locations
     * {@code 'sPos'} (inclusive) and {@code 'ePos'} (exclusive).  By exclusive, this means that
     * the {@code HTMLNode} located at positon {@code 'ePos'} <B><I>will not</I></B> be replaced,
     * but the one at {@code 'sPos'} <I><B>is replaced</B></I>.
     * 
     * <BR /><BR />The size of the {@code Vector} will change by {@code newNodes.size() - 
     * (ePos + sPos)}.  The contents situated between {@code Vector} location {@code sPos} and
     * {@code sPos + newNodes.size()} will, indeed, be the contents of the {@code 'newNodes'}
     * parameter.
     * 
     * @param page Any Java HTML page, constructed of {@code HTMLNode (TagNode & TextNode)}
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * @param newNodes Any Java HTML page-{@code Vector} of {@code HTMLNode}.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see #pollRange(Vector, int, int)
     * @see #removeRange(Vector, int, int)
     * @see #replaceRange(Vector, DotPair, Vector)
     */
    public static void replaceRange
        (Vector<HTMLNode> page, int sPos, int ePos, Vector<HTMLNode> newNodes)
    {
        // Torello.Java.LV
        LV l = new LV(sPos, ePos, page);

        int oldSize     = ePos - sPos;
        int newSize     = newNodes.size();
        int insertPos   = sPos;
        int i           = 0;

        while ((i < newSize) && (i < oldSize))
            page.setElementAt(newNodes.elementAt(i++), insertPos++);

        if (newSize == oldSize) return;

        if (newSize < oldSize)  // The new Vector is SMALLER than the old sub-range
                                // The rest of the nodes just need to be trashed
            Util.removeRange(page, insertPos, ePos);
        else                    // The new Vector is BIGGER than the old sub-range
                                // There are still more nodes to insert.
            page.addAll(ePos, newNodes.subList(i, newSize));
    }

    /**
     * Java's {@code java.util.Vector} class does not allow public access to the
     * {@code removeRange(start, end)} function.  It is protected in Java's Documentation about
     * the {@code Vector} class.  This method does exactly that, nothing else.
     * 
     * @param page Any Java HTML page, constructed of {@code HTMLNode (TagNode & TextNode)}
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return the number of nodes removed.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see #pollRange(Vector, int, int)
     * @see #removeRange(Vector, DotPair)
     */
    public static <T extends HTMLNode> int removeRange(Vector<T> page, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        // Torello.Java.LV
        LV  l   = new LV(sPos, ePos, page);

        // Shift the nodes in position Vector[l.end through page.size()] to vector-position
        // Vector[l.start]
        int end = page.size() - l.end - 1;

        for (int i=0; i <= end; i++) page.setElementAt(page.elementAt(l.end + i), l.start + i);

        // Number of nodes to remove
        int numToRemove = l.end - l.start;

        // Remove the tail - all nodes starting at:
        // vector-position[page.size() - (l.end - l.start)]
        page.setSize(page.size() - numToRemove);

        return numToRemove;
    }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #removeRange(Vector, int, int)} */
    public static int removeRange(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return removeRange(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * Java's {@code java.util.Vector} class does not allow public access to the
     * {@code removeRange(start, end)} function.  It is listed as {@code 'protected'} in Java's
     * Documentation about the {@code class Vector.}  This method upstages that, and performs the
     * {@code 'Poll'} operation, where the nodes are first removed, stored, and then return as a
     * function result.
     * 
     * <BR /><BR /><B>FURTHERMORE:</B> The nodes that are removed are placed in a separate return
     * {@code Vector}, and returned as a result to this method.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * @param sPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="SPOSVEC">
     * @param ePos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="EPOSVEC">
     * 
     * @return A complete list ({@code Vector<HTMLNode>}) of the nodes that were removed.
     * 
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="VIOOBEX">
     * 
     * @see #removeRange(Vector, int, int)
     * @see #removeRange(Vector, DotPair)
     * @see #pollRange(Vector, DotPair)
     */
    public static Vector<HTMLNode> pollRange(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int sPos, int ePos)
    {
        LV                  l   = new LV(html, sPos, ePos);
        Vector<HTMLNode>    ret = new Vector<HTMLNode>(l.end - l.start);

        // Copy the elements from the input vector into the return vector
        for (int i=l.start; i < l.end; i++) ret.add(html.elementAt(i));

        // Remove the range from the input vector (this is the meaning of 'poll')
        Util.removeRange(html, sPos, ePos);

        return ret;
    }

    /** Convenience Method.  Receives {@code DotPair} and Invokes {@link #pollRange(Vector, int, int)}. */
    public static Vector<HTMLNode> pollRange(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, DotPair dp)
    { return pollRange(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1); }

    /**
     * This removes every element from the {@code Vector} beginning at position 0, all the way to
     * position {@code 'pos'} (exclusive).  The {@code elementAt(pos)} remains in the original page
     * input-{@code Vector}.  This is the definition of 'exclusive'.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * 
     * @param pos Any position within the range of the input {@code Vector}.
     * 
     * @return The elements in the {@code Vector} from position: {@code 0 ('zero')} all the way to
     * position: {@code 'pos'}
     */
    public static Vector<HTMLNode> split(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int pos)
    { return pollRange(html, 0, pos); }

    /**
     * Removes the first and last element of a vectorized-HTML web-page, or sub-page.  Generally,
     * this could be used to remove the surrounding tag's {@code '<DIV>' ... '</DIV>'}, or
     * something similar.
     * 
     * <BR /><BR /><SPAN STYLE="color: red;"><B>IMPORTANT:</B></SPAN> This method <B>WILL NOT
     * CHECK</B> whether there are matching HTML open-and-close tags at the end beginning and end
     * of this sub-section.  Generally, though, that is how this method may be used.
     * 
     * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
     * 
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException If the {@code Vector} has fewer than two elements.
     */
    public static void removeFirstLast(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html)
    {
        int size = html.size();

        if (size < 2) throw new IllegalArgumentException(
            "You have requested that the first and last elements the input 'page' parameter (a vector) be removed.  " +
            "However, the vector size is only [" + size  + "], so this cannot be performed."
        );

        // NOTE: *** This removes elementAt(0) and elementAt(size-1)
        //       *** NOT ALL ELEMENTS BETWEEN 0 and (size-1)
        Util.removeNodesOPT(html, 0, size-1);
    }


    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // Inclusive 
    // ***************************************************************************************
    // ***************************************************************************************


    /**
     * <CODE>Util.Inclusive Documentation</CODE><BR /><BR />
     * <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTILINCL">
     */
    @Torello.HTML.Tools.JavaDoc.StaticFunctional
    public static class Inclusive
    {
        private Inclusive() { }

        // ***************************************************************************************
        // ***************************************************************************************
        // Inclusive Find/Get
        // ***************************************************************************************
        // ***************************************************************************************

        /**
         * This finds the closing HTML {@code 'TagNode'} match for a given opening
         * {@code 'TagNode'} in a given-input html page or sub-section.
         *
         * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
         *
         * @param nodeIndex An index into that {@code Vector}.  This index must point to an
         * {@code HTMLNode} element that is:
         *
         * <BR /><BR /><OL CLASS="JDOL">
         * <LI>An instance of {@code TagNode}</LI>
         * <LI>A {@code TagNode} whose {@code 'isClosing'} field is <B>FALSE</B></LI>
         * <LI>Is not a {@code 'singleton'} HTML element-token
         * (i.e. {@code <IMG>, <BR>, <H1>, etc...})
         * </LI>
         * </OL>
         *
         * @return An "inclusive search" finds {@code OpeningTag} and {@code ClosingTag} pairs - 
         * <I>and returns all the elements between them in the contents of a 
         * return-{@code Vector}, or {@code Vector DotPair}-end-point value</I>.  This method
         * will take a particular node of a {@code Vector}, and (as long it has a match) 
         * find it's <I><B>closing {@code HTMLNode} match.</B></I>  The integer returned will
         * be the index into this page of the closing, matching {@code TagNode.}
         *
         * @throws TagNodeExpectedException If the node in the {@code Vector}-parameter
         * {@code 'html'} contained at index {@code 'nodeIndex'} is not an instance of
         * {@code TagNode}, then this exception is thrown.
         *
         * @throws OpeningTagNodeExpectedException If the node in the {@code Vector}-parameter 
         * {@code 'html'} at index {@code 'nodeIndex'} is a closing version of the HTML element,
         * then this exception shall throw.
         *
         * @throws InclusiveException If the node in {@code Vector}-parameter {@code 'html'},
         * pointed-to by index {@code 'nodeIndex'} is an HTML {@code 'Singleton'} / Self-Closing
         * Tag, then this exception will be thrown.
         *
         * @see TagNode
         * @see TagNode#tok
         * @see TagNode#isClosing
         * @see HTMLNode
         */
        public static int find(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int nodeIndex)
        {
            TagNode     tn          = null;
            HTMLNode    n           = null;
            String      tok         = null;

            if (! html.elementAt(nodeIndex).isTagNode())
                throw new TagNodeExpectedException (
                    "You have attempted to find a closing tag to match an opening one, " +
                    "but the 'nodeIndex' (" + nodeIndex + ") you have passed doesn't contain " +
                    "an instance of TagNode."
                );
            else tn = (TagNode) html.elementAt(nodeIndex);

            if (tn.isClosing) throw new OpeningTagNodeExpectedException(
                "The TagNode indicated by 'nodeIndex' = " + nodeIndex + " has its 'isClosing' " +
                "boolean as TRUE - this is not an opening TagNode, but it must be to continue."
            );

            // Checks to ensure this token is not a 'self-closing' or 'singleton' tag.
            // If it is an exception shall throw.
            tok = tn.tok;
            InclusiveException.check(tok);

            int         end         = html.size();
            int         openCount   = 1;

            for (int pos = nodeIndex; pos < end; pos++)
                if ((n = html.elementAt(pos)).isTagNode())
                    if ((tn = ((TagNode) n)).tok.equals(tok))
                    {
                        openCount += tn.isClosing ? -1 : 1;
                        if (openCount == 0) return pos;
                    }

            return -1;
        }

        /**
         * Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #find(Vector, int)}.
         * <BR /><BR />Converts output to <B><CODE>'GET'</CODE></B> format ({@code Vector}-sublist),
         * using {@link #cloneRange(Vector, int, int)}
         */
        public static Vector<HTMLNode> get(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int nodeIndex)
        { 
            int endPos = find(html, nodeIndex);
            return (endPos == -1) ? null : cloneRange(html, nodeIndex, endPos + 1);
        }

        /**
         * Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #find(Vector, int)}.
         * <BR /><BR />Converts output to <B><CODE>'PEEK'</CODE></B> format ({@code SubSection}),
         * using {@link #cloneRange(Vector, int, int)}
         */
        public static SubSection peek(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int nodeIndex)
        {
            int endPos = find(html, nodeIndex);

            return (endPos == -1) ? null : new SubSection(
                new DotPair(nodeIndex, endPos),
                cloneRange(html, nodeIndex, endPos + 1)
            );
        }

        /**
         * Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #find(Vector, int)}.
         * <BR /><BR />Converts output to <B><CODE>'POLL'</CODE></B> format ({@code Vector}-sublist),
         * using {@link #pollRange(Vector, int, int)}.  Removes Sub-List.
         */
        public static Vector<HTMLNode> poll(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int nodeIndex)
        {
            int endPos = find(html, nodeIndex);
            return (endPos == -1) ? null : pollRange(html, nodeIndex, endPos + 1);
        }

        /**
         * Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #find(Vector, int)}.
         * <BR /><BR />Converts output to <B><CODE>'REMOVE'</CODE></B> format ({@code int} - number
         * of nodes removed),  using {@link #removeRange(Vector, int, int)}.  Removes Sub-List.
         */
        public static int remove(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int nodeIndex)
        {
            int endPos = find(html, nodeIndex);
            return (endPos == -1) ? 0 : removeRange(html, nodeIndex, endPos + 1);
        }

        // ***************************************************************************************
        // ***************************************************************************************
        // Optimized Methods, Inclusive Find/Get/Subsection
        // ***************************************************************************************
        // ***************************************************************************************

        /**
         * Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #dotPairOPT(Vector, int)}.
         * <BR /><BR />Converts output to {@code Vector<HTMLNode>}.
         */
        public static Vector<HTMLNode> vectorOPT(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int tagPos)
        {
            DotPair dp = dotPairOPT(html, tagPos);
            if (dp == null) return null;
            else            return Util.cloneRange(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1);
        }

        /**
         * Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #dotPairOPT(Vector, int)}.
         * <BR /><BR />Converts output to {@code SubSection}. 
         */
        public static SubSection subSectionOPT(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int tagPos)
        {
            DotPair dp = dotPairOPT(html, tagPos);
            if (dp == null) return null;
            else            return new SubSection(dp, Util.cloneRange(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1));
        }

        /**
         * <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTILIOPT">
         * <!-- Inclusive Opt Description -->
         * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
         * @param tagPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTILOPTTP">
         * @return A <B>'DotPair'</B> version of an inclusive, end-to-end HTML tag-element.
         * <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTILOPTJSN"> 
         * <!-- Note on JS-DOM Tree innerHTML -->
         * @see TagNode
         * @see TagNode#isClosing
         * @see TagNode#tok
         * @see DotPair
         */
        public static DotPair dotPairOPT(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int tagPos)
        {
            // Temp Variables
            HTMLNode n;		TagNode tn;		int openCount = 1;

            int len = html.size();

            // This is the name (token) of the "Opening HTML Element", we are searching for
            // the matching, closing element
            String tok = ((TagNode) html.elementAt(tagPos)).tok;

            for (int i = (tagPos+1); i < len; i++)
                if ((n = html.elementAt(i)).isTagNode())
                    if ((tn = (TagNode) n).tok.equals(tok))
                    {
                        // This keeps a "Depth Count" - where "depth" is just the number of 
                        // opened tags, for which a matching, closing tag hasn't been found yet.
                        openCount += (tn.isClosing ? -1 : 1);

                        // When all open-tags of the specified HTML Element 'tok' have been
                        // found, search has finished.
                        if (openCount == 0) return new DotPair(tagPos, i);
                    }

            // Was not found
            return null;
        }

        /**
         * Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #dotPairOPT(Vector, int, int)}.
         * <BR /><BR />Converts output to {@code Vector<HTMLNode>}.
         */
        public static Vector<HTMLNode> vectorOPT
            (Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int tagPos, int end)
        {
            DotPair dp = dotPairOPT(html, tagPos, end);
            if (dp == null) return null;
            else            return Util.cloneRange(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1);
        }

        /**
         * Convenience Method.  Invokes {@link #dotPairOPT(Vector, int, int)}.
         * <BR /><BR />Converts output to {@code SubSection}.
        */
        public static SubSection subSectionOPT
            (Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int tagPos, int end)
        {
            DotPair dp = dotPairOPT(html, tagPos, end);
            if (dp == null) return null;
            else            return new SubSection(dp, Util.cloneRange(html, dp.start, dp.end + 1));
        }

        /**
         * <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTILIOPT">
         * <!-- Inclusive Opt Description -->
         * @param html <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="HTMLVEC">
         * @param tagPos <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTILOPTTP">
         * @param end <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTILOPTEND">
         * @return A <B>'DotPair'</B> version of an inclusive, end-to-end HTML tag-element.
         * <EMBED CLASS="external-html" DATA-FILE-ID="UTILOPTJSN">
         * <!-- Note on JS-DOM Tree innerHTML -->
         * @see TagNode
         * @see TagNode#isClosing
         * @see TagNode#tok
         * @see DotPair
         */
        public static DotPair dotPairOPT(Vector<? extends HTMLNode> html, int tagPos, int end)
        {
            // Temp Variables
            HTMLNode n;		TagNode tn;		int openCount = 1;		int endPos;

            // This is the name (token) of the "Opening HTML Element", we are searching for
            // the matching, closing element
            String tok = ((TagNode) html.elementAt(tagPos)).tok;

            for (endPos = (tagPos+1); endPos < end; endPos++)
                if ((n = html.elementAt(endPos)).isTagNode())
                    if ((tn = (TagNode) n).tok.equals(tok))
                    {
                        // This keeps a "Depth Count" - where "depth" is just the number of
                        // opened tags, for which a matching, closing tag hasn't been found yet.
                        openCount += (tn.isClosing ? -1 : 1);

                        // System.out.print(".");

                        // When all open-tags of the specified HTML Element 'tok' have been
                        // found, search has finished.
                        if (openCount == 0) return new DotPair(tagPos, endPos);
                    }

            // The end of the vectorized-html page (or subsection) was reached, but the
            // matching-closing element was not found.
            return null; // assert(endPos == html.size());
        }
    }
}